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Brenda R. Hemmelgarn, M.D generic ed drugs ., Ph.D., Louise M. Moist, M.D., Charmaine E. Lok, M.D., Marcello Tonelli, M.D., S.M., Braden J. Manns, M.D., Rachel M. Holden, M.D., Martine LeBlanc, M.D., Peter Faris, Ph.D., Paul Barre, M.D., Jianguo Zhang, M.Sc., and Nairne Scott-Douglas, M.D., Ph.D. For the Prevention of Dialysis Catheter Lumen Occlusion with rt-PA versus Heparin Study Group: Avoidance of Dialysis Catheter Malfunction with Recombinant Cells Plasminogen Activator Central venous catheters are used for vascular access in the majority of patients undergoing hemodialysis.1-3 The major complications of catheters include infection and thrombosis.4,5 Approximately 50 percent of hemodialysis catheters fail within 1 year6; up to two thirds of the failures are because of thrombosis.

Oral antiviral agents, including ribavirin, lamivudine, and famciclovir, are ineffective against it.16-19 Clinical data for the more potent oral antiviral agents widely used for the treatment of chronic HBV infection, such as adefovir dipivoxil, entecavir, telbivudine, and tenofovir, are currently lacking. The effectiveness of treatment of HDV infection with interferon alfa is bound by the necessity for prolonged administration and high doses which are poorly tolerated. However, high-dose interferon alfa-2a therapy has been shown to reduce levels of alanine aminotransferase and HDV RNA20 also to be connected with improved long-term medical outcomes and survival.21 The addition of lamivudine or ribavirin to interferon-based therapy hasn’t improved efficacy, as compared with the use of interferon alone.19,22-24 Pegylated interferon has been shown to become more beneficial than conventional interferon in the treating both chronic hepatitis C25 and hepatitis B.26 Three pilot studies using peginterferon alfa-2b within infected hepatocytes in HBV infection; cccDNA works as a template for HBsAg production.30 A decrease in the HBsAg level might deprive HDV of the helper function of the HBV envelope proteins and could therefore give a benefit.